Karakteristik Fisikokimia dan Sifat Fungsional Tempe yang Dihasilkan dari Berbagai Varietas Kedelai (Phsyco-chemical Characteristics and Functional Properties of Tempe Made from Different Soybeans Varieties)

Made Astawan, Tutik Wresdiyati, Sri Widowati, Siti Harnina Bintari, Nadya Ichsani
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Abstract

Tempe merupakan makanan tradisional Indonesia yang diproduksi melalui fermentasi kedelai dengan kapang Rhizopus sp. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk membandingkan karakteristik fisik dan kimia kedelai impor (GMO, Non-GMO) dan kedelai lokal (Grobogan, Anjasmara, Argomulyo). Sebelum difermentasi, kelima jenis kedelai dibandingkan satu sama lain dalam hal ukuran, berat per 100 biji, volume, densitas kamba, impuritas, dan derajat pengembangan setelah dimasak dan direndam satu malam. Kadar air, abu, dan proteinnya juga dibandingkan. Untuk produksi tempe, kedelai disortasi, direbus, direndam, dikupas kulitnya, dan difermentasi. Tempe yang dihasilkan kemudian dianalisis kadar air, abu, protein, kapasitas antioksidan, rendemen, biaya paling efektif, dan karakteristik sensorinya. Hasil analisis menunjukkan kedelai Grobogan memiliki ukuran terbesar (19,53 g/100 biji kedelai) dan efektivitas biaya tertinggi (0,73), tetapi tidak berpengaruh nyata terhadap rendemen tempe yang dihasilkan (p > 0,05). Tempe yang dihasilkan dari kedelai Grobogan memiliki kadar air, protein, dan lemak yang sama dengan tempe dari kedelai impor. Tempe yang dihasilkan dari kedelai Argomulyo memiliki kadar protein tertinggi (52,70 persen). Kapasitas antioksidan tempe dari kedelai impor dan lokal berkisar antara 186-191 mg AEAC/kg tempe dan tidak berbeda nyata (p > 0,05) satu sama lain. Berdasarkan analisis sensori pada tempe mentah dan tempe goreng, secara keseluruhan tempe dari kedelai lokal memperoleh tingkat kesukaan yang sama dengan tempe dari kedelai impor.

Tempe is Indonesian traditional food made by fermentation of soybean by the fungus Rhizopus sp. The objective of this research was to compare physical and chemical properties of import soybeans (GMO, Non-GMO) and local soybeans (Grobogan, Anjasmara, Argomulyo). Before being fermented, these import and local soybeans were compared on size, weight/100 grains, volume, bulk density, impurities, and puffing degree after being cooked and overnight soaked. The moisture, ash, and protein contents were also compared. For producing tempe, soybeans were sorted, cooked, soaked, dehulled, and fermented. The tempe moisture, ash, protein, antioxidant capacity, yield, cost effectiveness, and sensory characteristic were then evaluated. The result showed that Grobogan variety had the biggest size (19.53 g/100 soybean grains) and the highest cost effectiveness (0.73), but the yields of all tempe were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Tempe made from Grobogan soybean had moisture, protein, and fat content as high as tempe made from imported soybeans. Tempe made from Argomulyo soybean had the highest protein content (52.70 percent). The antioxidant capacity of tempe made from imported and local soybeans was about 186–191 mg AEAC/g, but was not significantly different (p > 0.05). Based on sensory evaluation of raw and fried tempe, overall tempe made from local soybeans had the same preference with tempe made from imported soybeans.

 

Keywords

kfermentation; import soybean; local soybean; tempe

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