Kajian Agroekologi terhadap Strategi Pemenuhan Kebutuhan Pangan Masyarakat di Kabupaten Belu Nusa Tenggara Timur

Main Article Content

Carolina Carolina
Elok Wahju Hidajat


A local agroecosystem is the main food source, especially corn, for the people of Belu, East Nusa Tenggara. Although poverty is in general still an obstacle to achieving food security, local farmers’ strategy in managing local resources to fulfill food needs is valuable to be explored to discover the prospect of local potency. A case study is conducted in Bakustulama Village in West Tasifeto, Belu Subdistrict for exploring the local wisdom. Data are collected using an agroecological approach that allows integration of ecology, economy and social elements in food system perspective in lieu with food security definition to include food availability, accessibility, and continuity. It is found that food security strategy is performed through enabling agroecosystem to produce corn in multiple cropping systems, combining corn as a carbohydrate source, beans as a protein source, and other plant species rich in vitamin and minerals with good exchange value. Co-management principal is used from preparing land until harvesting. Corn is then stored to assure yearlong supply. As a staple food, corn is prepared traditionally as jagung ketemak and jagung bose, or mixed with rice. Based on the typical corn agroecosystem management, it is concluded that by means of appropriate technology introduction in cultivation system and post-harvest, significant value add could be acquired to improve not only food availability but also its accessibility. 

Article Details

Author Biographies

Carolina Carolina

Pusat Pengembangan Teknologi Tepat Guna Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia

Elok Wahju Hidajat

Badan Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Kabupaten Belu Propinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur


Abraham, B., Arayaz, H., Berhe, T., Edwards, S., Gujja, B., Khadkas, B., Koma, Y.S., Sen, D., Sharif, A., Stygers, E., Uphoff, N. and Verma, A. 2014. The system of crop intensification: reports fromthe field on improving agricultural production,food security, and resilience to climate change formultiple crops. Agriculture & Food Security, 3:4. http://www.agricultureandfoodsecurity.com/content/3/1/4. Diakses 18 Desember 2015.

Aerni, P. 2009. What is sustainable agriculture? Empirical evidence of diverging views in Switzerland and New Zealand. Ecological Economics 68: 1872–1882

Altieri, M.A. 2002. Agroecology: The Science of Natural Resource Management for Poor Farmers in Marginal Environments. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 93:1-24.

Altieri, M.A., Funes-Monzote, F.R. & Petersen, P. 2012. Agroecologically efficient agricultural systems for smallholder farmers: contributions to food sovereignty. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 32: 1. DOI:10.1007/s13593-011-0065-6

Attah, A.W. 2012. Food Security in Nigeria: The Role of Peasant Farmers in Nigeria. Journal African Research Review 6 (4): 173-190

Badan Pusat Statistik. 2015. Statistik Indonesia 2015. http://www.bps.go.id/linkTabelStatis/view/id/1268. Diakses 14 Desember 2015.

Badan Pusat Statistik. 2014. Statistik Pertanian Kabupaten Belu, 2014. Kabupaten Belu. Nusa Tenggara Timur.

Bungin, B. 2008. Penelitian Kualitatif : Komunikasi, Ekonomi, Kebijakan Publik, dan Ilmu Sosial Lainnya. Kencana. Jakarta. 348 hal.

Carlisle, L. 2014. Diversity, flexibility, and the resilience effect: lessons from a social-ecological case study of diversified farming in the Northern Great Plains, USA. Ecology and Society 19(3):45.

Congreves, K.A., Hayes, A., Verhallen, E.A., Van Eerd L.L. 2015. Long-term impact of tillage and crop rotation on soil health at four temperate agroecosystems. Soil and Tillage Research 152 : 17–28.

Francis C., Lieblein G., Gliessmann S., Breland TA, reamer N, Harwood, Salomonsson L, Helenius J, Rickert D., Salvador R., Wiedenhoeft M., Sions S., Allen P., Altieri M., Flora C. Poincelot, R. 2003. Agroecology : The ecology of Food System. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 22:99-118

Food and Agriculture Organization, 2008. An Introduction to the Basic Concepts of Food Security. www.foodsec.org/docs/concepts_guide.pdf (Diakses 8 Maret 2016).

Hidajat, EW dan Dyah S. 2012. Traditional Inter-Cropping System Practice in Supporting Family Food Security at Belu, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia. Proceeding of Internatuonal Seminar Enhancing Grassroots Innovation Competititiveness for Poverty Alleviation. Indonesian Institute of Sciences. Hal. 244-249.

Ichwandi, I. 2014. Membumikan Kebijakan Ketahanan Pangan. Risalah KebijakanPertanian dan Lingkungan Vol.1 No.2 : 97-104.

Kaiser, M.L. 2011.Food Security: An Ecological–Social Analysisto Promote Social Development. Journal of Community Practice 19:62–79. DOI: 10.1080/10705422.2011.550261

Knowler, D., Bradshaw, B. 2007. Farmers’ adoption of conservation agriculture:A review and synthesis of recent research. Food Policy 32 (2007) 25–48

Lassa, J.A. 2009. Memahami Kebijakan Pangan dan Nutrisi Indonesia: studi Kasus Nusa Tenggara Timur 1958-2008. Journal of Nusa Tenggara Timur Studies 1(1): 28-45

Limnirankula, B., Onprapaib, T., and Gypmantasiric, P. 2015. Building Local Capacities in Natural Resources Management for Food Security in the Highlands of Northern Thailand. Proceeding of the 1st International Conference on Asian Highland Natural Resources Management, AsiaHiLand. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 5:30–37. DOI: 10.1016/j.aaspro.2015.08.005

Limnirankula, B., Promburomb, P., Thongngamb, K. 2015. Community Participation in Developing and Assessing HouseholdFood Security in the Highlands of Northern Thailand. Proceeding of the 1st International Conference on Asian Highland Natural Resources Management, AsiaHiLand. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 5:52-59. DOI: 10.1016/j.aaspro.2015.08.008.

Mahadevan, R. & Hoang, V. 2015. Is There a Link between Poverty and Food Security. Social Indicator Research : 1-21. DOI: 10.1007/s11205-015-1025-3

Prabowo, R. 2010. Kebijakan Pemerintah dalam Mewujudkan Ketahanan Pangan di Indonesia. Mediagro Vol.6. No.2: 62-73.

Priyanto, D dan Diwyanto K. 2014. Pengembangan Pertanian Wilayah Perbatasan Nusa Tenggara Tiur dan Republik Demokrasi Timor Leste. Pengembangan Inovasi Pertanian 7 (4) : 207-220

Punyaluea, A., Jongjaidee, J., Jamjod, S. and Rerkasem, B. 2015. Reduce burning in maize production by relay cropping with legume. 1st International Conference on Asian Highland Natural Resources Management, AsiaHiLand. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 5 : 17 – 21

Siri, D., Eide, W.B. and Kuhlein, H.N. 2008. Indigenous peoples’ nutrition transition in a right to food perspective. Food Policy, 33 (2): 135-155.

Spiertz, H. 2012. Avenues to meet food security. The role of agronomy on solving complexity infood production and resource use. European Journal of. Agronomy 43: 1–8

Tadele Z. 2014. Role of Crop Research and Development in Food Security of Africa. International Journal of Plant Biological Research. 2(3): 1019-1025.

Usfar, A.A. 2007. The alarming food insecurity situation in Indonesia: Analysis of 13 studies in 6 provinces within 2004-2006 and its relationship with livelihood security. Gizi Indonesia, 30 (2):98-111.

Uy, T.C., Limnirankulb, B., and Chaovanapoonpholb, Y. 2015. Factors Impact on Farmers’ Adaptation to Drought in MaizeProduction in Highland Area of Central Vietnam. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Asian Highland Natural Resources Management, AsiaHiLand. Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia 5: 75–82. DOI : 10.1016/j.aaspro.2015.08.011

Wezel A., Bellon S., Dore T., Francis C., Vallod D. and David C. 2009. Agroecology as a science, a movement and a practice. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 29: 503–515. DOI:10.1051/agro/2009004

Yin, RK. 2003. Case Study Research : Design and Methods. Thousand Oak. Sage Publications.

Yusuf, Pohan A. dan Syamsuddin, 2013. Jagung Makanan Pokok Untuk Mendukung Ketahanan Pangan di Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Serealia. Balai Penelitian Serealia. Balitbang Pertanian. Kementerian Pertanian. Hal. 543-549.