Pengembangan Teknologi Pengendalian Serangga Hama Gudang Menggunakan Pestisida Alami Berbasis Nimba {Azadirachta indica. A.Juss) Development of Stored Product Pest Control Technology Using Biopesticide Based on Neem (Azadirachta indica. A. Juss)

Sulaeman Yusuf, Khoirul Himmi Setiawan, Didi Tarmadi, Deni Zulfiana, Maya Ismayati, Atik Setyowati
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Abstract

Selama dalam masa penyimpanan, komoditi hasil panen dapat mengalami kerusakan dan susut bobot (losses) yang disebabkan oleh serangan hama. Sitophilus oryzae adalah salah satu penyebab kerugian dan kerusakan terbesar karena memiliki kemampuan cepat berkembang biak akibat suplai makanan yang melimpah, mampu berpindah bersama-sama dengan komoditas hasil panen, serta mempunyai daya adaptasi pada kondisi kering. Pengendalian secara kimiawi tidak menjadi solusi, karena masih menggunakan bahan-bahan pestisida berbahaya seperti Carbamat, Piretroid, PH3 dan Metil Bromida,yang memiliki efek karsinogenik yang memicu kanker, akibat efek residual yang tertinggal dalam komoditas pangan. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, penelitian ini menawarkan teknologi pengendalian hama gudang penyimpanan hasil panen, menggunakan pestisida alami berbasis nimba, Azadirachta indica yang efektif, aman sekaligus ramah lingkungan. Hasil bioassay menunjukkan respon yang sangat baik, dimana mortalitas 100 persen S. orizae dicapai pada konsentrasi 10 ppm produk formulasi. Uji toksisitas akut oral dan dermal juga menunjukkan produk formulasi termasuk kategori bahan tidak berbahaya (WHO, 2003).

During storage, stored product commodities could be damaged and lose weight caused by pest attack. Sitophilus oryzae is one of the most dangerous stored pests because of their fast reproductive abilities due to abundant supply of foods; their moving abilities with stored commodities; and their adaptability to extremely drying condition.Chemical treatments are not solving the problems because they still contain some toxical substances like carbamate, pyretroid, methyl boric, that would lead to residual contain remains on food commodity and possess carsinogenic effect Based on that background, this research proposes new stored product pest control technology using effective and environmentally friendly biopesticide based on neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss). Bioassay results against S. oryzae show that 100 percent mortality is achieved at 10 ppm biopesticide formulation. Both acute oral and dermal toxicity tests also show that biopesticide formulation is classified as not harmful substances (WHO, 2003).

 

Keywords

Azadirachta indica; biopesticide; Sitophilus oryzae

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