Determinan Inovasi Teknologi dan Kebijakan Pengembangan pada Industri Pangan (Determinants of Technological Innovation and Development Policy in Food Industry)

Main Article Content

Harianto Harianto
Dyan Vidyatmoko
Husni Yasin Rosadi


Inovasi teknologi memiliki peranan penting dalam pertumbuhan ekonomi di negara maju, namun demikian, kajian faktor-faktor yang menentukan inovasi teknologi di Indonesia masih terbatas. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengkaji faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi inovasi industri pangan dan merumuskan alternatif kebijakan dalam meningkatkan inovasi teknologi pada industri pangan. Penelitian menggunakan metode analisis regresi 2 SLS (Two Stage Least Square) dan analisis kualitatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat enam faktor yang mempengaruhi inovasi teknologi pada industri pangan. Faktor tersebut meliputi kepemimpinan, sumberdaya manusia, orientasi pembelajaran, kemampuan perusahaan dalam memberikan insentif, hubungan kerjasama perusahaan dengan pihak luar dan lokasi perusahaan. Berdasarkan hasil tersebut, didapat enam alternatif kebijakan untuk mengembangkan inovasi teknologi di industri pangan. Tiga prioritas kebijakan adalah mendorong terjadinya alih teknologi dengan lebih banyak memberikan pelatihan teknologi bagi karyawan perusahaan, mendorong dan memfasilitasi diklat bagi pimpinan perusahaan, menyelenggarakan kompetisi hasil inovasi, melakukan kebijakan alih teknologi dalam setiap pembelian mesin/peralatan serta membangun sentra/kawasan industri terpadu.

Despite the fact that technological innovation and its role in the economic growth of developed countries have been much studied, but there is only little knowledge about the factors that determine technological innovation in Indonesia. Objectives of this study are to analyze the factors that effect innovation in the food industry in Indonesia and to recommend the policy alternative for technological innovation development in food industry. Analytical methods used to achieve the research objective are regression analysis with 2 SLS (Two Stage Least) method and qualitative analysis. The results show that there are six factors that influence technological innovation in the food industry. The determinants include the style of leadership, human capital, learning orientation, the company’s ability to provide incentives, company relationships with outsiders and corporate location. This implies that there are six possibilities of policy in order to promote technological innovation in food industry.


Article Details

Author Biographies

Harianto Harianto

Departemen Agribisnis, Fakultas Ekonomi dan Manajemen, Institut Pertanian Bogor

Dyan Vidyatmoko

Pusat Pengkajian Kebijakan Inovasi Teknologi, Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)

Husni Yasin Rosadi

Pusat Pengkajian Kebijakan Inovasi Teknologi, Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT)


Abereijo, A.I. dan A. Adeniyi. 2009. Technological Innovation Sources and Institutional Supports for Manufacturing Small and Medium Enterprises in Nigeria. Journal of Technology Management and Innovation 4 (2):1-10.

Avermaete, V.M. dan M. Crawford. 2003. Determinants of Products and Process Innovation in Small Food Manufacturing Firms. Trends in Food Science and Technology 15: 8-17.

Bagherinejad, J. 2006. Cultivating Technological Innovations in Middle Eastern Countries: Factors Affecting Firm’s technological Innovation Behaviour in Iran. Cross Cultural Management 13 (4):361-380.

Bass, B.M, dan P. Steidlmeier, 1999. Ethics, Character and Authentic Transformational Leadership Behaviour. Leadership Quarterly 10 (2): 99-120.

Bigliardi, B dan A.I. Dormio. 2009. An Empirical Investigation of Innovation Determinants in Food Machinery Enterprises. European Journal of Innovation Management 12 (2): 223-242.

Braadland, T.E. 2000. Innovation in the Norwegian Food System. Working Paper. STEP-gruppen. Oslo. Norwegia.

Capitanio, F., A. Coppola dan S. Pascucci. 2008. Indications for Drivers of Innovation in the Food Sector. British Food Journal 111 (8):820-838.

Clarysse, B., Van Dierdonck, R., Gabriels, W., Lambrechts, J. dan Uytterhaegen, M. 1998. Strategische verschillen tussen innovative KMOs:een kijkje in de zwarte doos. Publication No. 5. IWT. Brussels.

Cohen, W. 1995. Empirical Studies of Innovative Activity. Pp: - . In P. Stoneman (Ed.). Handbook of the Economics of Innovation and Technological Change, Oxford: Blackwell.

Cumming, B.S. 1998. Innovation Overview and Future Challenge. European Journal of Innovation Management 1(1), 21-29.

Egil, T, 2000. Managing Technology Innovation. John Wiley and Sons. London.

Europe Innovation, 2007. Sectoral Innovation Systems in Europe: The Case of Food, Beverage and Tobacco Sector.

Evangelista R, S. Tore, S. Giorgio, dan S. Keith. 1998. Measuring innovation in European industry. International Journal of the Economics of Business 5 (3): 567-581.

Fazlzadeh, A. dan M. Moshiri. 2010. An Investigation of Innovation on Small Scale Industries Located in Science Parks of Iran. International Journal of Business and Management 5 (10): 148-154.

Feigl S dan K. Menrad. 2008. Innovation Activities in the Food Industry in Selected European Countries Project report “Traditional United Food Europe” (TRUEFOOD).

Fortuin, F. dan O. Omta. 2009. Innovation Drivers and Barriers in Food Processing. British Food Journal 111 (8): 839-851.

Fuglie, K.O. 2002. Agricultural Productivity Growth in Indonesia, 1961-2000. Mimeo. International Potato Center, Bogor, Indonesia.

Fuglie, K.O. 1999. Investing in Agricultural Productivity in Indonesia. Forum Penelitian Agro Ekonomi 17 (2): 1-16.

Galende, J. dan JM. De la Fuente. 2003. Internal Factors Determining a Firm’s Innovative Behaviour. Research Policy 32 (5): 715-736.

Gregrio, D.D. 2004. Human Capital, Social Capital and Executive Compensation: How Does the Slice of Pie Executives Appropriate Compare to What They Bring to the Table. Dissertation. Smith School of Business, University of Maryland.

Grunert, K., Hermsen, H., Meulenberg, M., Kuiper, E., Ottowitz, T., Declerck, F., Traill, B. dan Goransson, G. 1997. A framework for analysing innovation in the food sector , in Traill, B. and Grunert, K. (Eds), Product and Process Innovation in the Food Industry, Blackie Academic & Professional, London, pp. 1-37.

Gujarati, D.N, 1997. Basic Econometrics. McGraw Hill International Editions, Singapore.

Haaga, D.P. 2002. A study of the Relationship Between Organizational Capacity to Innovate and Market Orientation in a Fast Food Industry. Dissertation for Doctor of Philosophy at University of Alliant International University, USA.

Hill, M.D. 2005. Adaption and Innovation During Technology Transfer: the Perspective of Receiving and Giving Engineers and Managers in A High-Tech Multi-cultural Joint Venture. Dissertation. Fieding Graduate University.

Johannessen, J.A, B. Olsen dan G.T. Lumpki. 2001. Innovation as Newness: what is new, how Innovation Management 4(1), 20-31.

Ju, B. 2012. An Evaluation of Critical Factors Influencing Product Innovation in the Food Industry- A Case Study of China Mengjiu Dairy Company. International Journal of Business and Management 7 (3): 104-110.

Kane, M.R. A. Gray, B. M. Gramig, dan M. Boehlje. 2010. The Innovation Process: Practices in Food and Agribusiness Companies. Agricultural & Applied Economics Association 2010. AAEA, CAES & WAEA Joint Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado, July 25-27.

Kotler, P, 1991. Marketing Management- Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control. Prentice Hall, London.

Lundvall, B.-A. 1992. National Systems of Innovation. Pinter Publishing. London.

Maurer, O. dan Drescher, K. 1996. Industrial Standard as Driving Forces of Corporate Innovatiobn and Internalization, in Galizzi, G and Venturini, L (eds) Economics of Innovation: the Case of the Food Industry, Physica Verlag, Heidelberg, pp.221-34.

Moshiri, M. 2010. An Investigation of Innovation in Small Scale Industries Located in Science Parks of Iran. International Journal of Business and Management, Vol.5. No.10.

Muscio, A, G. Nardone dan A. Dottore. 2010. Understanding Demand for Innovation in the Food Industry. Measuring Business Excellence Vol. 14 (4): 35-48.

Narvekar, R.S. dan K. Jain. 2006. A New Framework to Understand the Technological Innovation Process. Journal of Intellectual Capital 7 (2): 174-186.

Naseem, A., S. W. Omamo dan D.J. Spielman. 2006. The Private Sector in Agricultural R&D: Policies and Institutions to Foster its Growth in Developing Countries, ISNAR Discussion Paper 6.

Omidvar, V. 2006. Regional and Firm Level Human Effects on the Rate of Innovation in Food Processing Firms in Canada. Thesis for Master of Science Degree at University of Manitoba, Library and Archives Canada, Canada.

Oslo Manual (OECD). 2005. Guides for Collecting and Interpreting Innovation Data. Third Edition. A joint publication of OECD and Eurostat.

Pray, E. dan K. Fuglie. 2001. Private Investment in Agricultural Research and International Technology Transfer in Asia. Agricultural Economic Report No. 805, United States Department of Agriculture.

Schumpeter, J. A. 1934. The Theory of Economic Development. Harvard University Press. Cambridge, MA.

Schumpeter, J. A. 1942. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. Harper & Row. New York, NY.

Tessa, A., J. Viaene, dan E. J. Morgan. 2004. Determinants of Product and Process Innovation in Small Food Manufacturing Firms. Trends in Food Science & Technology 15: 474–483.

Thompson, A.K. dan J.M. Paul. 2008. Innovation in the Food Industry: Functional Foods. Innovation: Management, Policy & Practice 10.

Tornatzky, L.G. dan Fleischer, M. 1990. The Process of Technological Innovation. Lexington Books. Lexington, MA.

Traill, W. B. dan M. Meulenberg. 2002. Innovation in the Food Industry. 5 18 (1): 1-21.

Varzaka, T. dan Jukes, D.J. 1997. The Globaliztion of the Food Regulation and Market Quality: a study of the Greek food market in Looder, Rj, Hanson, Sj and Traill, WB (eds) Globalization of the Food Industry: Policy Implications, the University of Reading, Reading.